Who’s Out There?—Stuck With Carbon2 min read

As a microbiologist (by training), I’ve been delighted with the recent interest Physics Today has taken in reporting current findings in biology. This trend reflects the fact that high school students now are introduced to physics before chemistry. Biology comes last. Many years ago biology was taught first, then chemistry, then physics. Now we realize that a clear understanding of how living things work requires an understanding of the more “basic” sciences.

As an astrobiology buff, I was very happy to see the article “The Laws of Life” in the March 2017 issue of Physics Today. Author Charles S. Cockell defines astrobiology as we would expect—a study of life as it might exist anywhere, how it “…originated, evolved, and covered planetary surface[s].” Cockell emphasizes the huge variety that life has assumed on Earth and the simple fact that it must conform to the laws of physics. For survival purposes, an enormous number of efficient proteins are produced, but thermodynamics restricts how molecules are assembled and used.

Silicon is more reactive than carbon, hence it can’t form the stable, long-chains that carbon does. Long-chain exceptions are silicates, made with oxygen. However, natural silicates on Earth are found in rocks only as minerals, glasses and “amorphous structures.” On the other hand, carbon-based compounds are found throughout the galaxy—in clouds, meteorites, and protoplanetary disks. Some are simple, some aromatic. Others contain cyanide in useful, branched structures. Carbonaceous compounds may contain sugar, amino acids, nucleostases, and carboxylic acid. Recently, organic molecules have been found on Ceres. Ribose and glycine (parts of RNA and amino acid, respectively) have been found on comets. In contrast, silicon out in space is found only in minerals and glasses, as on Earth.

Here’s where physics takes its stand–the factor that makes carbon-life probably universal is the Pauli Exclusion Principle. The pairing of electrons in an element “determines an atom’s radius and reactivity.” It is hard to deny that “…life anywhere [will] tap into the energy available in electrons, relatively easily yanked away from atoms to do work.” Cockell concludes simply: “…life on Earth is unexceptional.”

Maybe. It’s certainly been hard to re-invent. We apparently have a lot to learn about the limits to, and the extraordinary complexity of, getting life started.

Author of The Archives of Varok

The View Beyond Earth (Book 1.)

The Webs of Varok (Book 2.)

Nautilus Silver Award 2013 YA

ForeWord IBPA finalist 2012 adult SF

The Alien Effect (Book 3.)

An Alien’s Quest (Book 4. Released Nov.21, 2016)

Excerpts, Synopses, Reviews, On Writing, Characters and More-


Reviews of significant books- www.goodreads.com/Cary_Neeper

How the Hen House Turns- www.ladailypost.com

Complexity, Bio, Bibliography and Links- caryneeper.com

Astrobiology- astronaut.com search:Who’s Out There


Cary Neeper is an avid student of complexity theory, sustainability, steady-state economics, and the impact of cosmology on issues of science and religion. She grew up in the foothills of Hayward, California, where she helped rack dried fruit on her father’s 40-acre apricot ranch. After studying zoology/chemistry and religion at Pomona College and medical microbiology at the University of Wisconsin, she moved with her husband to northern New Mexico, where they raised their family. The Neepers still live in the Southwest with a friendly menagerie of dogs, fish, chickens, geese, ducks and a turkey called Little Bear. Cary plays string bass with local folk, symphony and jazz groups and tennis with local retired physicists. She paints landscapes in acrylics, including the cover art for her first Penscript title, The Webs of Varok. Cary's first novel and Webs of Varok prequel A Place Beyond Man was originally published in 1975 by Charles Scribner’s Sons, Dell, and Millington, London. Cary re-released A Place Beyond Man as an Author’s Guild Backinprint edition, now available from online booksellers. Its themes of sustainability and interspecies cooperation have now grown into new adventures for its human, elll and varok family as they travel the alternate 21st century Solar System in the five-volume Archives of Varok, coming from Penscript Publishing House in 2012–2014. Cary’s other works include two musical science fiction comedies “U.F.F.D.A.!” and “Petra and the Jay,” as well as newspaper and magazine articles, essays, short stories, and book reviews for The Christian Science Monitor.

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