Who’s Out There?—Possibilities Keep Growing (1)3 min read

The more we learn about exoplanets and our own solar system, the more remarkable the universe seems, and the more possibilities for life emerging elsewhere, or anywhere, increases.

The number of exoplanets in habitable orbits around reasonable suns continues to rise.  NASA.gov reports that of the 150,000 stars Kepler has studied, 4175 are candidates that may have planets. One thousand were verified as of April and 2/3 or them are rocky. A stratosphere has been found on one of them, similar to that of Earth. Six are nearly Earth-size, orbiting in the habitable zone of stars not unlike our sun. Kepler 186f was the first.

Credit: Huff post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-sten-odenwald/exoplanets-the-new-age-in-planetary-science_b_4918718.html Credit: Huff post: www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-sten-odenwald/exoplanets-the-new-age-in-planetary-science_b_4918718.html%5B/caption%5D

Some of these potentially habitable planets challenge current theories of planet formation. One is Earth-size with an orbit like ours in a double-star system. Another is 2000 times more distant from its sun than we are and is bigger than twelve Jupiters. Kepler 10-C is much larger than Earth (17 times our Earth’s mass) but rocky.

Since so many different approaches are being applied to finding who’s out there, it might be useful to review some of the new findings about life here on Earth and review conditions found in our solar system. Under-ice seas are not uncommon, as are many chemical building blocks of life. The first active volcanoes outside the solar system have been found on 55 Cancri.

We know now that even Mercury has some water ice and other volatiles in shallow polar craters, as well as carbon-rich layers over polar deposits. NASA’s Mercury orbiter has found an old magnetic field, volcanic lava flows over most of its surface, and metals on the surface, which suggests a more temperate early history. Recently, ESA’s Venus Express has also found good evidence for volcanism there.

Study of comet Hale-Bopp found that it carries water, ammonia formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide—the recipe for amino acids necessary for life as we know it. Even our solar system itself is looking different these days, extended outward with the finding of Sedna’s orbit, which has a perihelion of 76 AU, and VP 723 with a perihelion of 80 AU. There are even hints of a super-planet 250 AU distant from the sun.

There are more possibilities in the universe than we have imagined, so the watch continues and is now expanding significantly. A coalition of scientists from a wide selection of fields of study will be applying  interdisciplinary systems science to NASA’s  search for life beyond Earth. Their primary question is, “Are we alone?” James Graham will head the Berkeley/Stanford University team, and Jim Green is Director of Planetary Science.

Author of The Archives of Varok
The View Beyond Earth (Book 1. Rewrite of A Place Beyond Man 1975)
The Webs of Varok (Book 2.)
Nautilus silver award 2013 YA
ForeWord finalist 2012 adult SF
The Alien Effect (Book 3.)
An Alien’s Quest–Reconciliation and Hope (Book 4. coming in 2015)
Excerpts, Synopses, Reviews, On Writing, Characters and More-
Other Book Reviews-  www.goodreads.com/Cary_Neeper
How the Hen House Turns-  www.ladailypost.com
Complexity, Bio, Bibliography and Links- caryneeper.com
Astrobiology- astronaut.wpengine.com  search:Who’s Out There

Cary Neeper is an avid student of complexity theory, sustainability, steady-state economics, and the impact of cosmology on issues of science and religion. She grew up in the foothills of Hayward, California, where she helped rack dried fruit on her father’s 40-acre apricot ranch. After studying zoology/chemistry and religion at Pomona College and medical microbiology at the University of Wisconsin, she moved with her husband to northern New Mexico, where they raised their family. The Neepers still live in the Southwest with a friendly menagerie of dogs, fish, chickens, geese, ducks and a turkey called Little Bear. Cary plays string bass with local folk, symphony and jazz groups and tennis with local retired physicists. She paints landscapes in acrylics, including the cover art for her first Penscript title, The Webs of Varok. Cary's first novel and Webs of Varok prequel A Place Beyond Man was originally published in 1975 by Charles Scribner’s Sons, Dell, and Millington, London. Cary re-released A Place Beyond Man as an Author’s Guild Backinprint edition, now available from online booksellers. Its themes of sustainability and interspecies cooperation have now grown into new adventures for its human, elll and varok family as they travel the alternate 21st century Solar System in the five-volume Archives of Varok, coming from Penscript Publishing House in 2012–2014. Cary’s other works include two musical science fiction comedies “U.F.F.D.A.!” and “Petra and the Jay,” as well as newspaper and magazine articles, essays, short stories, and book reviews for The Christian Science Monitor.

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