Who’s Out There?—Creative Chemicals and Genes2 min read

In searching for extraterrestrial life, it might be useful to broaden our vision to include the amazing mechanisms that drive animal life at all levels. We have talked about methyl groups that load onto DNA as a result of childhood abuse. Normally, methyl groups are switches that
turn a gene on or off depending on its environment. But too many can be bad news, when they accumulate on DNA in response to abuse; they can last for at least two generations.

Clues to cellular ageing, hence exo-cellular potential, include breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, shortening of telomeres, mitochondrial damage and now—surprisingly—a brain protein that lasts a lifetime, controlling messages and helping cells in the brain organize.

Earlier we learned about mini-RNA and its role in genetic regulation and disease processes. It looks like an excellent candidate for starting life, but it has been very difficult to create self-replicating RNA from scratch. The puzzle remains “How did life’s myriad parts come together?”
asks reporter Emily Singer. At least, life probably requires “a way to store information and replicate.”

Two differing approaches are being taken. Nick Hud at Georgia Tech is focusing on chemical interactions as a possible starting point for life. Biological processes probably came later. He suggests that the ribosome, found in all Earth’s living things, “…emerged from chemistry alone.” A
large diversity of chemicals could have collected, interacted and found a way to put found energy to creative use.

Maybe short strands of RNA could form and interact to create longer strands. Variations in the environment, like heating and cooling, could stir up activity, even simple metabolic reactions. But to produce more and longer strands of RNA, true copies of itself without biological tools like enzymes, seems to be very difficult. So far it has not been done in the lab.

Time may be the missing ingredient, time for the right ingredients to form and find each other, perhaps in the protected envelope of a protocell-like structure within a life-enhancing environment.

Author of The Archives of Varok
The View Beyond Earth (Book 1. Rewrite of A Place Beyond Man 1975)
The Webs of Varok (Book 2.)
Nautilus silver award 2013 YA
ForeWord finalist 2012 adult SF
The Alien Effect (Book 3.)
An Alien’s Quest–Reconciliation and Hope (Book 4. coming in 2016)
Excerpts, Synopses, Reviews, On Writing, Characters and More-
Other Book Reviews-  www.goodreads.com/Cary_Neeper
How the Hen House Turns-  www.ladailypost.com
Complexity, Bio, Bibliography and Links- caryneeper.com
Astrobiology- astronaut.wpengine.com search:Who’s Out There


Cary Neeper is an avid student of complexity theory, sustainability, steady-state economics, and the impact of cosmology on issues of science and religion. She grew up in the foothills of Hayward, California, where she helped rack dried fruit on her father’s 40-acre apricot ranch. After studying zoology/chemistry and religion at Pomona College and medical microbiology at the University of Wisconsin, she moved with her husband to northern New Mexico, where they raised their family. The Neepers still live in the Southwest with a friendly menagerie of dogs, fish, chickens, geese, ducks and a turkey called Little Bear. Cary plays string bass with local folk, symphony and jazz groups and tennis with local retired physicists. She paints landscapes in acrylics, including the cover art for her first Penscript title, The Webs of Varok. Cary's first novel and Webs of Varok prequel A Place Beyond Man was originally published in 1975 by Charles Scribner’s Sons, Dell, and Millington, London. Cary re-released A Place Beyond Man as an Author’s Guild Backinprint edition, now available from online booksellers. Its themes of sustainability and interspecies cooperation have now grown into new adventures for its human, elll and varok family as they travel the alternate 21st century Solar System in the five-volume Archives of Varok, coming from Penscript Publishing House in 2012–2014. Cary’s other works include two musical science fiction comedies “U.F.F.D.A.!” and “Petra and the Jay,” as well as newspaper and magazine articles, essays, short stories, and book reviews for The Christian Science Monitor.

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