The components were created via an additive manufacturing process known as selective laser smelting. Unlike the commercially available 3D printers you can currently buy, which use spools of plastic, this process uses a laser to fuse together layers of metal powder. So if you were hoping to throw together a rocket engine in your garage, your RepRap or Makerbot isn’t going to be up to the task.
According to NASA, the 3D-printed engine is more of a proof of concept, to show that the individual 3D-printed components can work together, than a real, functioning rocket engine. This is why the engine doesn’t look like what you might expect a rocket engine to look like, even though it is capable of generating a staggering 20,000 pounds of thrust.
The implication is that this technology could be instrumental in building the next generation of launch vehicles, a Mars lander designed to carry human astronauts, and all sorts of other vital components. According to NASA, 3D printing technology also allows large, complex components to be created with fewer individual parts. For instance, the turbopump in the 3D-printed engine has 45 percent fewer component parts, and the injector uses 200 less component parts than a traditional injector.
The possibilities on display with this 3D-printed rocket engine don’t end on Earth, either. As evidenced by astronauts already using 3D printers on the International Space Station, the possibilities go into orbit, and beyond. Although Popular Mechanics points out that some components, like gaskets, can’t be printed with current technology, astronauts on a future mission to Mars could print all manner of replacement parts and components without having to rely on an Earth-bound supply chain.